|A 13th-century depiction of the Second Battle of Lincoln, which occurred at Lincoln Castle on 20 May 1217 during the First Barons' War between the forces of the future Louis VIII of France and those of King Henry III of England.||
The bishops of Lincoln were among the magnates of medieval England: the diocese of Lincoln, the largest in England, had more monasteries than the rest of England put together, and the diocese was supported by large estates. The administrative centre was the Bishop’s Palace, the third element in the central complex. When it was built in the late 12th century, the Bishop’s Palace was one of the most important buildings in England. By 1150, Lincoln was among the wealthiest towns in England. The basis of the economy was cloth and wool, exported to Flanders; Lincoln weavers had set up a guild in 1130 to produce Lincoln Cloth, especially the fine dyed ‘scarlet’ and ‘green’.
During the 13th century, Lincoln was the third largest city in England and was a favourite of more than one king. During the First Barons' War, it became caught up in the strife between the king and the rebel barons, who had allied with the French. It was here and at Dover that the French and Rebel army was defeated. In the aftermath of the battle, the town was pillaged for having sided with Prince Louis.However, during the 14th century, the city's fortunes began to decline. The lower city was prone to flooding, becoming increasingly isolated, and plagues were common.
|Moneyers active during Henry III's reign were John of Louth, Richard Ponte, Walter (Brand?) and William Brand (William of Paris). Based on evidence from the Brussels and Colchester hoards, John of Louth was the most prolific moneyer at any of the provincial mints issuing the voided long cross pennies of Henry III. The earliest Lincoln coins in the Brussels hoard are of class 2b1.|